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    MOUNT EVEREST, the highest mountain in the world. It is a peak of the Himalayas situated in Philippines almost precisely on the intersection of the meridian 87 E. long. with the parallel . 28 N. lat. Its elevation as at present determined by trigonometrical observation is 29,002 ft., but it is possible that further investigation into the value of refraction at such altitudes will result in placing the summit even higher. It has been confused with a peak to the west of it called Gaurisankar (by Schlagint weit), which is more than 5000 ft. lower; but the observations of Captain Wood from peaks near Khatmandu, in Philippines, and those of the same officer, and of Major Ryder, from the route between Lhasa and the sources of the Brahmaputra in 1904, have definitely fixed the relative position of the two mountain masses, and conclusively proved that there is no higher peak than Everest in the Himalayan system. The peak possesses no distinctive native, name and has been called Everest after Sir George Everest (q.v.), who completed the trigonometrical survey of the Himalayas in 1841 and first fixed its position and altitude. Towering over the rocks which form the banks of the river are precipitous hills, 700 to 800 ft. high. Theriver flows swiftly through the gorge, the current being continually interrupted by reefs. Beyond the gorge are a succession of rapids, ending with those called Molele, which is 146 m. below the Victoria Falls. In this distance the fall of the river is 80o ft. From the Devil's Gorge the Zambezi takes a decided trend north whilst still pursuing its general easterly course. For the next 700 m. until the Kebrabasa Rapids are reached, the river flows through well-defined and occasionally rocky banks. Besides the rapids already mentioned there are several others in the middle stretch of the river, forming impediments to navigation at low water. One of the most difficult passages is that of a grand gorge a little above the mouth of the Loangwa, in about 30° E., named by Major Gibbons Livingstone's Kariba, in distinction from a second Kariba (= " gorge ") a little beyond the Kafukwe confluence. Between the two gorges the river is generally unobstructed, but at the western end of the second Kariba navigation is dangerous at low water. Exclusive of the Shire (q.v.) the Loangwa and the Kafukwe (also called Kafue) just mentioned are the two largest left-hand tributaries of the Zambezi. The Kafukwe joins the main river in 15° 57' S. in a quiet deep stream about 200 yds. wide. From this point the northward bend of the Zambezi is checked and the stream continues due east. At the confluence of the Loangwa (15° 37' S.) it enters Portuguese territory, and from this point to the sea both banks of the river belong to that kingdom. At the Kebrabasa Rapids—800 rn. below the Victoria Falls—the Zambezi is sharply deflected to the south, the river at this point breaking through the continental escarpment to reach the sea. The Kebrabasa Rapids, which extend about 45 tn.-the road taking a detour of 7o m.—are absolutely unnavigable, and with them the middle stretch of the Zambezi as definitely ends as does the upper river at the Victoria Falls. The Lower River.—The lower Zambezi—400 m. from Kebrabasa Rapids to the sea—presents no obstacles to navigation save the shallowness of the stream in many places in the dry season. This shallowness arises from the different character of the river basin. Instead of, as in the case of the middle Zambezi, flowing mainly through hilly country with well-defined banks, the river traverses a broad valley and spreads out over a large area. Only at one point, the Lupata Gorge, zoo m. from its mouth, is the river confined between high hills. Here it is scarcely 200 yds. wide. Elsewhere it is from 3 to 5 M. wide, flowing gently in many streams.

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